Atomic Clocks: An Overview
Time waits for no one. With this in mind, we set out to create clocks to synchronize with the lunar cycles. It was an impressive leap that began about 10,000 years ago when the Egyptians invented the sundial in 2100 BC. The sundial or shade clock, used for the first time by the Sumerians, worked on the premise of measuring the length of the shadows to show the time of day. The weather played in spoilsport, like on cloudy days, and when the months changed, the shadows did not match the marks. The Romans endeavored to improve, stealing Cleopatra’s Eagle Needle, the tools used by the Egyptians, but had to be content with the cries of the city announcing the change of time. Around 325 BC Hours of water followed the sunny days; The water clock was basically a cube with a hole in the bottom to record the time of the slip, but not the clock. Several adaptations and models followed, resulting in a clock.
The word clock has its origin in the French word “cloche”, “what the call means.”
The first watch used the weight to move the gears, which, in turn, moved the hands. They lost weight before the weight was supported by an oscillating horizontal rod attached to a vertical axis with protuberances to act as deviations.Always, the springs replaced the weight, reducing the size of the clocks that could be used, keeping on the shelf From the chimney or hanging like a wall clock, the mechanical clocks and clocks gave way to an electronic clock with a quartz crystal, which would later be surpassed by desktop atomic clock.
Precision is the hallmark of atomic clocks, which become more reliable and uniform compared to the time derived from Earth’s rotation. Atomic clocks work by measuring the resonance frequency of a given atom, that is, cesium, hydrogen or mercury, increasing the accuracy by more than a billionth of a second per day. It is this precision that makes atomic clocks more reliable as alarm clocks for internal, scientific or public functions.
How to deal with atomic clocks in the global positioning system?
Atomic clocks use the “atomic resonance frequency standard” to accurately record time. However, you must remember that the principles on which these clocks operate are not based on nuclear science, as the name implies, but on precise microwave signals. The early atomic clocks were driven by MASER – microwave amplification due to stimulated emission; The modern version is controlled by the absorption spectroscopy of cold atoms placed in atomic sources.
Due to its precision, this watch (made of ceasium or rubidium) is used on board the space shuttle with GPS satellites. Time is calculated with an accuracy of 50 nanoseconds and then mathematically converted into three absolute coordinates of space and one coordinate of time. These precise GPS devices are also used in computer networks, research laboratories and in many forms of communication systems. They are used by airplanes to navigate, when ships use this system to find their way to the oceans. They are also used by ambulance services to find their way through the labyrinth of streets in a big city. Today, this system is used to detect abnormal shocks within the intestines of the earth and warnings of earthquakes.
Atomic clocks can be purchased at online stores at attractive prices. But you must be very careful when buying such a watch; Do not fall alone for a discount. Authentic atomic clocks must have a precision of one nanoparticle of a second. Therefore, by purchasing, verify that the clock gives such an accurate time.